Definition and typologies: opacity of the crystalline lens, congenital cataracts and age-related cataracts
It is defined by a progressive loss of crystalline transparency, or rather the lens that is inside our eye (behind the iris) that contributes to focusing images on the retinal plane. This pathology is age-related, but in same cases it can be present from birth (congenital cataract) or develops at a younger age due to traumas or the use of medications. There are no pharmacological therapies that prevent or treat cataracts. The only therapy to restore good vision is surgery. The most modern technique that removes cataracts is called "phacoemulsification" and consists of removing the central part of the crystalline lens (nucleus) by means of an ultrasound probe and in cleaning the residual area (the cortex). Then an artificial crystalline lens (intraocular lens) is implanted, with the aim of replacing the biological function of the natural crystalline lens.