Cornea and keratoconus
Definition and pathologies: keratoconus and progressive, non-inflammatory corneal dystrophy
Keratoconus is a degenerative disease of the cornea that involves the deformation of the optical corneal surface (generally an irregular myopic astigmatism) associated with a reduction of the thickness of the cornea and a progressive reduction of visual capacity. Keratoconus usually arises during adolescence (between 14 and 20 years). Typically it appears in an asymmetric way and it affects one eye and after some years the other. Unilateral forms are very rare. It is a progressive disease.
Visual disturbances of a patient with keratoconus depend on the irregular form of the corneal surface. Therefore, it is essential to study its characteristics to define the development of the disease and to monitor its progression. Corneal tomography is carried out with Pentacam at the Blue Eye ocular microsurgery centre, which reconstructs in 3D the anterior segment of the eye and gives an evaluation of: the characteristics of the cornea, the anterior chamber and the crystalline lens. It is undoubtedly the most modern and sophisticated diagnostic tool available today. This examination is non-invasive and presents no risks. In the study of keratoconus, corneal tomography is associated with another non-invasive examination: endothelial microscopy, which gives the number and the morphological characteristics of endothelial cells.