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Visual Defects in Children

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Visual Defects in Children

Child ophthalmology: treatment of amblyopia, strabismus, dyslexia and other visual disturbances that affect children


The most frequent visual disturbances in children are the following:

  • Amblyopia, also known as “lazy eye”: it is a visual defect that does not present particular symptoms or diseases. The child can compensate by adapting to the visual disturbance. An early diagnosis is therefore necessary to start an optical correction therapy and effective rehabilitative treatments with high success rates before the age of 5>
  • Strabismus: it is necessary to distinguish real strabismus, which is the main cause of amblyopia, from those forms of pseudo-strabismus linked to palpebral conformation. An ophthalmologic-orthoptic examination between 6 and 9 months is advisable to exclude microstrabismus and to evaluate the presence of binocular vision and the absence of congenital defects such as cataract and glaucoma
  • Dyslexia, the difficulty in reading correctly and fluently. Dyslexic children can read and write, but only by engaging their abilities and energy to the utmost. Since they cannot do it automatically they get tired quickly, make mistakes, are left behind and do not learn. It affects 3-4% of the school population (Italian Primary and Middle schools).

First visit At the age of 3 years, the child is usually cooperative and can undergo an evaluation of visual acuity through highly specialised checks and an examination of the refraction to identify potential visual defects such as hypermetropia, astigmatism and myopia. Towards 5-6 years of age a new check is advisable.

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